2 Samuel

2 Samuel - Lesson 20

Chapter 20:1-26

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**2 Samuel series originally taught by Stephen Armstrong. Chapter 20 onwards taught by Wesley Livingston**

  • As we continue in this study of 2 Samuel, I want to put out a disclaimer that tonight’s teaching will not provide an entire recap of 2 Samuel Chapter 1 to where Pastor Steve left off in Chapter 19.

    • We would not have adequate time to provide the immense amount of history through David’s rise to his decline.

      • So, we encourage you to start your study of 2 Samuel with Pastor Steve’s teaching beginning in 2 Samuel 1, that way you will be all caught up to where we will begin tonight.

    • I believe the most logical pick-up approach to Chapter 20 of 2 Samuel, would be to review the last 3 verses of Chapter 19.

      • Verses 41-43 are going to provide us with the buildup moment of this narrative as David and his army are preparing to cross over the Jordan river back into Jerusalem after the defeat of his son, Absalom.

    • If we were to have an outline of our flow through the text tonight, we are going to see quite a few things as we complete the entire chapter.

      • As mentioned earlier, we will begin with:

        • 1. Background and recap (2 Samuel 19:41-43)

        • 2. Unfortunate move at a vulnerable time (v.1-2)

        • 3. Failed Rallying of the Troops (v.3-7)

        • 4. Overturned with a Kiss (v.8-12)

        • 5. Pursuit of Sheba (v.13-22)

        • 6. David’s Cabinet Members (v.23-26)

    • If I were to place a tag on our text tonight it would be: Sheba’s Rebellion

      • With that being said, I invite you to open a copy of the scriptures and meet me in verses 41-43 of 2 Samuel 19 for a quick recap.

2 Samuel 19:41 And behold, all the men of Israel came to the king and said to the king, “Why have our brothers, the men of Judah, abducted you and brought the king and his household and all David’s men with him, over the Jordan?” 
2 Samuel 19:42 Then all the men of Judah answered the men of Israel, “Because the king is a close relative to us. Why then are you angry about this matter? Have we eaten at all at the king’s expense, or has anything been taken for us?” 
2 Samuel 19:43 But the men of Israel answered the men of Judah and said, “We have ten parts in the king, therefore we also have more claim on David than you. Why then did you treat us with contempt? Was it not our advice first to bring back our king?” Yet the words of the men of Judah were harsher than the words of the men of Israel
  • So, it’s at the end of Chapter 19 that we find David entering back into the land of Jerusalem, initially accompanied by the men of Judah.

    • However, this “victory parade” back into the land, in the eyes of the northern tribes, was a bit of a problem.

      • In the sense that Israel felt their invitation somehow got lost in the mail.

    • Israel wanted to show their support of David as king too, however, it seemed as if this party had already started.

      • In other words, this victory parade looked as if Israel had no claim to the king or better yet no dog in the fight.

      • So as you could imagine some animosity brews within the bunch causing Israel to ask the question in verse 41, “Why have our brothers, the men of Judah, abducted you, the king, and brought you to your household over the Jordan?”

    • It’s at this point that Judah responds by pulling the family card, “Because we are close relatives to the king”.

      • Well, it doesn’t take a rocket scientist to see that Israel didn’t take kindly to that assertion.

      • This then triggered a “war of words” between Israel and Judah.

    • Israel responds by saying “We have 10 parts in the king which is more claim than you”.

      • In other words, we have more in number than you – our ten to your one tribe.

      • This conversation gets so heated that verse 43b says, “Yet the words of the men of Judah were harsher than the words of the men of Israel”

    • Being that the writer of 2 Samuel did not include the dialogue between the two groups but describes the conversation as a “harsh exchange” means that these weren’t a bunch of pleasantries being exchanged.

      • Ultimately, what we see from these 3 verses becomes a foreshadow of what will result in 1 Kings 12 which leads to the eventual separation of Israel and Judah into two kingdoms.

      • So, this growing disunity and animosity between Israel and Judah under David, although David tries his best to unify a divided people, doesn’t seem to be happening in a timely manner.

    • Friends, this ultimately points us to the reality that true peace and unity amidst division and power-hungry men will never be resolved until Jesus’ return in His Second Coming.

      • As James 1:20 says, “the anger of man does not achieve the righteousness of God.”

    • Furthermore, considering what has just taken place between Israel and Judah, we will now see an individual, amid this back-and-forth contention, use this as an opportunity to exacerbate the tension.

      • Check out verses 1-2 of 2 Samuel 20.

2 Samuel 20:1 Now a worthless fellow happened to be there whose name was Sheba, the son of Bichri, a Benjamite; and he blew the trumpet and said,
“We have no portion in David,
Nor do we have inheritance in the son of Jesse;
Every man to his tents, O Israel!”
2 Samuel 20:2  So all the men of Israel withdrew from following David and followed Sheba the son of Bichri; but the men of Judah remained steadfast to their king, from the Jordan even to Jerusalem.
  • The instigator between Israel and Judah is a man by the name Sheba, the son of Bichri.

    • Note how the text begins with a description of who this man is rather than beginning with his name.

      • He is described as “a worthless fellow”.

    • The word “worthless” in Hebrew is “ish beliyya’al (ble-ya-all)” which means good for nothing, wicked, or lawless.

      • This same word is used of Eli’s sons, Hophni and Phineas, in 1 Samuel 2:12-13 regarding their behavior and ways.

      • Sheba was a Benjamite, meaning he was from the same tribe as King Saul, however the text doesn’t mention explicitly that Sheba necessarily favored a Benjamite king.

    • In any case, Sheba takes the liberty in maximizing the disunity at this point by blowing a trumpet, which was a shofar.

      • This action was significant because it served as either a declaration of war or an introduction to royalty.

      • And in this case, according to verse 1a, this was a revolt against the rightful king of Israel, in which Sheba convinces “all the men of Israel” to pull away.

    • As you could imagine, this had to feel like another devastating blow for David. It is as if David can’t get a break!

      • If it wasn’t Saul pursuing David to kill him, it was David’s son, Absalom, trying to usurp the throne.

    • So, all the men of Israel parted ways from David in his procession home to Jerusalem and returned to their respective destinations.

      • So, despite the withdrawal of Israel, the tribe of Judah remained loyal to the King.

      • And what a picture this is of the Christian life, that our allegiance and submission to Christ should weather ever trial.

    • So, David and Judah will make their way back to Jerusalem to establish David as the rightful King of the land.

      • Check out verses 3-7.

2 Samuel 20:3 Then David came to his house at Jerusalem, and the king took the ten women, the concubines whom he had left to keep the house, and placed them under guard and provided them with sustenance, but did not go in to them. So they were shut up until the day of their death, living as widows.
2 Samuel 20:4 Then the king said to Amasa, “Call out the men of Judah for me within three days, and be present here yourself.” 
2 Samuel 20:5 So Amasa went to call out the men of Judah, but he delayed longer than the set time which he had appointed him. 
2 Samuel 20:6 And David said to Abishai, “Now Sheba the son of Bichri will do us more harm than Absalom; take your lord’s servants and pursue him, so that he does not find for himself fortified cities and escape from our sight.” 
2 Samuel 20:7 So Joab’s men went out after him, along with the Cherethites and the Pelethites and all the mighty men; and they went out from Jerusalem to pursue Sheba the son of Bichri. 
  • David returns to Jerusalem after having been across the Jordan for some time to escape the treacherous acts of Absalom.

    • However, because of Sheba’s rebellion having followed Absalom’s attempt to take the throne, David sees that he needs to put an end to this immediately.

      • But before he can re-establish himself in the land, he must first get his household in order.

      • Verse 3 mentions that upon arrival to his home, David immediately took his 10 concubines whom he had left in Jerusalem and placed them into their living quarters until they died.

    • Now, this section of the text, to some, may seem a bit out of place, especially if you are just jumping into this section of the text with no prior background.

      • If you recall, it was the counsel of Ahithophel to Absalom in 2 Samuel 16:21-22 to have sexual relations with his father’s concubines.

      • In this case, this sexual act was not consensual which means that these women were raped by David’s son.

    • Not only was this a treacherous act of Absalom, but it also delegitimized David’s rule as King.

      • For an act of this magnitude, it symbolized a transfer of royal power.

      • So, this was a political move by an illegitimate successor.

    • So, with this act having been committed against David’s concubines, he could no longer take back these women for himself.

      • However, out of an act of kindness and grace, being that these women could no longer marry, David brings them into a lifetime of widowhood, and provides food and shelter for them.

      • Otherwise, these women would have been left with nothing and isolated in society unable to marry.

    • So, upon David’s finalizing arrangements for his ten concubines, he wastes no time to address the issue at hand a potentially divided kingdom.

      • And he does so by assembling his troops for battle to find Sheba and bring him to justice.

    • So, he calls forth his new commander, Amasa, to reorganize the army of Judah in preparation to quickly secure the Kingdom’s unity.

      • Now as a quick refresher, if you recall, Amasa replaced Joab as commander in 2 Samuel 19 because of Joab’s disobedience to the King’s command to not kill his son.

      • So, this change in leadership may have been a retaliation on David’s part because of Joab’s hard-headedness.

    • And to add fuel to the fire, Amasa was Absalom’s commander.

      • So, to have made this decision to prove a point to Joab, it becomes clear that David’s decision was unwise, or was it?

      • I say this because as we will see in a few verses, there will seem to be an opportunity for Joab to get what he wants, while David’s potential suspicion of Amasa will be brought to light.

    • So, David calls for Amasa to assemble the men of Judah within three days in Gibeon to take down Sheba.

      • However there seems to be a delay that was longer than anticipated because the text tells us that Amasa delayed “longer than the appointed time.”

      • And in response to this incompetent act, David calls up Abishai to take David’s personal elite troops to pursue Sheba in an effort to bring this division to an end.

    • What’s important to recognize here is the urgency to get to Sheba. It’s less about Sheba’s act, and more about the potential growth of division amongst Israel and Judah.

      • So, time is of the essence and David recognizes this and assembles his A- team.

      • And what do you know, accompanying Abishai on this military mission is none other than his brother, Joab, the previous loyal leader of David.

      • Hopefully, you see the building tension between Joab and any individual that stands in the way of his position of authority as David’s military commander.

    • Verse 7 mentions that it was “Joab’s men” who went out to pursue Sheba.

      • Notice, the subtle transfer of who is supposedly commanding at this point.

    • That where David sends Abishai in charge, it now seems as if Joab takes his rightful place as the prospective leader in this endeavor.

      • This is classic Joab! He is the opportunist who looks for ways to prove himself even if not called upon.

      • And we will see his loyalty to David rise, momentarily.

      • And perhaps David anticipates Joab to be himself in an effort to protect the Kingdom.

    • It’s in verses 8-9 that Abishai, Joab and his men arrive in Gibeon to meet Amasa and rally together all the men for battle.

      • Well, it’s at this meeting place that Joab and Amasa meet.

      • And upon meeting, the text describes Joab’s military attire being armed with a sword fastened at his waist.

    • At this point, there seems to be no sense of caution for Amasa towards Joab for two reasons:

      • They are relatives through marriage and on top of that they are both seeking to take on the same enemy in a military act.

    • However, something seems to be brewing in the heart of Joab, because right as he comes up to his brother-in-law, he greets him with a traditional kiss of greeting as he pulls him in with his right hand.

      • All the while, as their exchange of greeting commences, Joab picks up his dropped sword and pulls the wool over Amasa’s eyes.

      • And Joab strikes with the masking of a kiss.

    • Now, much suspicion has been brought up regarding Joab’s killing of his brother-in-law.

      • In one sense, this is a retaliatory action from Joab because of his loss of rank against an Absalom sider.

      • And on the other hand, this could very well have been Joab’s loyal response to a disloyal Amasa.

    • As we discussed earlier, Amasa wasted no time to side with David’s son, and going against God’s king was going against God Himself.

      • This is why David made mention earlier in verse 6 regarding how Sheba’s rebellion would do more harm than Absalom.

    • And perhaps this is the case because although both rebellions were horrible, Absalom was David’s son. (Preservation of the Davidic lineage)

      • Therefore, Joab’s killing of Amasa becomes a response of Joab’s fast-acting nature while, at the same time, eliminating enemies from inside the camp.

    • Furthermore, the failure of Amasa gathering the troops for battle and not reporting this to the king in an immediate nature showed a “lack of loyalty” to David.

      • Perhaps, Amasa’s failure to accomplish the command of David speaks to a potential rouge commander.

      • Therefore, in Joab’s mind this could have been seen as a necessary task.

      • And at best, Joab’s response was a jealous outbreak that kindled against Amasa.

    • And I think this speaks to a very important point of how our sin nature, if not controlled or submitted to Christ, can get the best of us.

      • In many ways, our lack of self-control can lead one to make decisions that, at the moment, may seem beneficial to their end-goal.

      • However, when we take matters in our own hands, it becomes the result of unwise decisions that will ultimately have to be dealt with in the end.

      • And this will be a pattern that will further be emphasized by Joab in Chapter 20.

    • Well, it’s after this gruesome murder of Amasa, that one of Joab’s young leaders makes a statement of resolve.

      • He says, “Whoever favors Joab and whoever is for David, let him follow Joab.”

    • This statement is power packed with extreme subtle messaging and brings about the point we identified earlier.

      • Joab’s young man begins with those in whom favor Joab, which suggests that there may have been some animosity amongst the army of Judah regarding Amasa being in charge.

      • That perhaps there was loyalty to Joab amongst the ranks, however, the latter half of his statement becomes even more insightful.

    • He continues by saying, “...and whoever is for David, let him follow Joab.”

      • In other words, Joab is David’s right hand man, so you either get with the picture or end up like Amasa.

      • Perhaps this statement of resolve was to either weed out those who had secretly sided with Amasa to delay David’s mission.

      • Either way, the message was clear: Get on the right page and let’s move forward in the mission.

    • Therefore, the warning of sorts came across to all who were, or claimed to be, for David and a possibility for those who may have been against him to turn to the right side.

      • But most importantly, this demonstrated to the masses who is now fully in charge of the army.

      • So, although Abishai was leader of this mission by the decree of David, Joab has once again found a way to get what he wants control of; his military.

      • And if we were to be honest, we come across many Joabs in life.

      • These individuals seem well intended and loyal to a degree, but the moment that something or someone gets in the way, a challenge has now presented itself and they seek to get rid of the “extra weight”.

    • However, it’s clear that this means of behavior is not praised by God nor is it a demonstration of the character of believers.

      • That when it boils down, it is God who will exalt individuals to where they need to be and it is God who will remove individuals from their places of position.

      • God alone is Sovereign and when we get involved in trying to move the pieces of the chess board, we end up causing more damage than good.

      • Ultimately, these moves being made are simply God’s sovereignty at work bringing about His purposes through the broken means of individuals.

    • Well, it’s in verse 12 that the message, by way of killing of Amasa, was received and established fear in the men, but it also became a distraction towards the mission at hand.

      • Imagine, if you were there seeing the dying body of Amasa wallowing on the ground, it would be quite a disturbing sight.

      • And furthermore, without a proper burial, this was a huge problem for these men. (It was dishonoring especially according to the Law)

      • So, in an effort to remove the distraction, the young man removed the body from the road and into the nearby field and covered Amasa as an “attempt” of respect.

      • We now arrive to the pursuit of Sheba. Check out verses 13-22.

2 Samuel 20:13 As soon as he was removed from the highway, all the men passed on after Joab to pursue Sheba the son of Bichri.
2 Samuel 20:14 Now he went through all the tribes of Israel to Abel, even Beth-maacah, and all the Berites; and they were gathered together and also went after him. 
2 Samuel 20:15 They came and besieged him in Abel Beth-maacah, and they cast up a siege ramp against the city, and it stood by the rampart; and all the people who were with Joab were wreaking destruction in order to topple the wall. 
2 Samuel 20:16 Then a wise woman called from the city, “Hear, hear! Please tell Joab, ‘Come here that I may speak with you.’” 
2 Samuel 20:17 So he approached her, and the woman said, “Are you Joab?” And he answered, “I am.” Then she said to him, “Listen to the words of your maidservant.” And he answered, “I am listening.” 
2 Samuel 20:18 Then she spoke, saying, “Formerly they used to say, ‘They will surely ask advice at Abel,’ and thus they ended the dispute
2 Samuel 20:19 I am of those who are peaceable and faithful in Israel. You are seeking to destroy a city, even a mother in Israel. Why would you swallow up the inheritance of the Lord?” 
2 Samuel 20:20 Joab replied, “Far be it, far be it from me that I should swallow up or destroy! 
2 Samuel 20:21 Such is not the case. But a man from the hill country of Ephraim, Sheba the son of Bichri by name, has lifted up his hand against King David. Only hand him over, and I will depart from the city.” And the woman said to Joab, “Behold, his head will be thrown to you over the wall.” 
2 Samuel 20:22 Then the woman wisely came to all the people. And they cut off the head of Sheba the son of Bichri and threw it to Joab. So he blew the trumpet, and they were dispersed from the city, each to his tent. Joab also returned to the king at Jerusalem.
  • So as soon as the body is removed from the road, the men can go about their way in pursuit of Sheba, to the north.

    • And in doing so the army makes about a 90 mile trip north of Gilgal and approximately four miles west of the region of Dan to a town called Abel also known as Beth-maacah.

      • So, as you can see in this map, this journey went through much of the land of Israel, and all this to pursue one man.

      • So as Sheba and his group are going from town to town to recruit and enlist aid and shelter.

      • However, there seems to be failure in that assistance because they continue to move north.

    • It happens that Joab’s army has found wind of the fact that Sheba has found refuge within the city walls of Abel.

      • So, they surround Abel and set up a siege ramp against the city.

    • A siege ramp can best be defined as mounting up earth and material in an effort to scale the exterior walls of a city to breach the gates.

      • On top of that, these siege warfare tactics consisted of preventing the supply of food, water, and ability to communicate to outside cities for assistance.

      • And with all of this in mind, this became a huge issue!

    • Because as with any type of war that is to take place, there is always rules of engagement.

      • Just as we have today the International Humanitarian Law, we also find in scripture the rules of engagement in war as well.

      • And it is in Deuteronomy 20:10 that we find that before besieging a town, there must first be offerings in terms of peace.

      • Check out Deuteronomy 20:10-11. Keep verse 11 in mind, because it will bring clarity to verse 24.

Deut. 20:10  “When you approach a city to fight against it, you shall offer it terms of peace. 
Deut. 20:11  If it agrees to make peace with you and opens to you, then all the people who are found in it shall become your forced labor and shall serve you.
  • So, with the Mosaic Law having established this reality, we find once again that Joab’s plan of attack is not wrapped in wisdom but rather vengeful instinct.

    • Notice verse 15b, the text mentions that “all the people who were with Joab were wreaking destruction in order to topple the wall.”

    • The Hebrew word for “wreaking destruction” is šāḥat (she-het), which means to ruin, destroy, or to annihilate.

      • This means that Joab’s sole mission was going to kill all in his path for the sake of destroying one man, and Joab’s first instinct is far from peace.

    • However, there was a wise woman in the city who called from the city gate to broker peace.

      • I love how the text doesn’t provide her name but rather her character, she was a wise woman.

      • And apparently, she knows the rules of engagement because she calls from the wall for the man who is in charge; she calls out for Joab.

    • It was typical in that day to have either an elderly woman of wisdom or an elderly man in the town to be used as delegates to proctor peace for the city.

      • So, this woman calls out to Joab to which Joab responds in a receptive manner.

    • She uses proper reasoning with Joab by presenting the reality of war and the requirement to broker peace according to the Law of Moses.

      • In few words, she says, in verse 18, “Abel is a place where they practice the art of reconciling before being led to violence.”

    • What a peaceful approach to the start of the conversation.

      • Here continued dialogue in verse 19 reminds me of the elderly mothers where my family grew up in Louisiana.

      • That when it came down to discipline or corrective measures, all the kids who lived on that street knew that if Mother “So and So” said it’s time to go home, then it’s time to go home.

      • So, there is clearly an establishment of respectful grounds.

    • From there she makes a general statement representing her and those of her city who are peaceable and faithful in Israel.

      • This statement is huge, because although the 10 tribes of Israel had turned their backs on David as King, this woman made very clear that those are not her sentiments.

      • Both she and the inhabitants of Abel are not their enemies nor enemies of the King.

    • To put it plainly, Yahweh has chosen David as King, therefore Yahweh is our God and David is our King!

      • What a beautiful expression of how there is safety and security found in the Lord. And it is through wisdom that there is safety.

Ecc. 7:12 For wisdom is protection just as money is protection,
But the advantage of knowledge is that wisdom preserves the lives of its possessors.
  • From this point, she provides Joab with the issue at hand, and that is Joab is seeking to destroy the city, to which she continues by saying, “even [destroying] a mother city”.

    • During that time, cities were surrounded by network towns or villages which were called “daughters”.

    • It’s like saying that the city of San Antonio, TX is a “mother city” to Leon Springs or Castle Hills.

      • These smaller “cities” usually utilize infrastructure support from these “mother cities”. And the same relationship existed during those days.

    • So once this truth has been spoken to Joab, he begins to pull the denial card, “I would never desire to destroy the land, who me, never, not I.”

      • And in this case, the reality versus his perception were two completely different things.

    • And it’s from this point that Joab agrees to broker a deal with the wise woman by clarifying that he is looking only for a man named Sheba who has not only gone against the King, but ultimately against God.

      • So, Joab says, “If you deliver Sheba to me, I will depart from the city.”

      • And the immediate response from the woman is to make the arrangement happen.

      • However, not with handing Sheba over alive but rather handing over his head.

    • The wise woman proceeds by going back into the city, locating Sheba and severs his head for proof of identity.

      • Now, unfortunately there were no cameras that could record the capture of an individual to properly identify who the person of interest was.

      • However, one thing that would not be forgotten was the face of the individual who has committed unjust crimes, especially against a sovereign.

    • And as agreed, once the head had been given, Joab did as he promised and retreated from the city. And how he did it had a flare of poetic justice.

      • If you recall at the beginning of this chapter, Sheba began this revolt with the blowing of the shofar in verse one of Chapter 20 along with telling the men to go to their tents.

      • And now Joab concludes the revolt with Sheba’s head in hand, blowing the shofar to end the battle and for each man to return to his tent.

      • If there ever was a petty moment documented in the bible, it is here in 2 Samuel 20:22.

    • Well, we now get to our last three verses of the night, verses 23-26.

2 Samuel 20:23 Now Joab was over the whole army of Israel, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada was over the Cherethites and the Pelethites; 
2 Samuel 20:24 and Adoram was over the forced labor, and Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud was the recorder; 
2 Samuel 20:25 and Sheva was scribe, and Zadok and Abiathar were priests; 
2 Samuel 20:26 and Ira the Jairite was also a priest to David.
  • The revolt is now over, Sheba has been taken down, and David’s authority as King has been established once again.

    • And we know this is the case because verses 23-26 make mention of David’s list of administrators.

      • It’s like establishing a list of individuals on your A-team who have proven trustworthy and are now deemed as cabinet members for your organization.

      • They have put in the blood, sweat, and tears, but most importantly it displays the servants of David as men of loyalty.

      • And with any Kingdom, it required other governing members who report to the King regarding their areas of expertise.

    • This official list was originally established in the beginning of David’s reign as King in 2 Samuel 8:15-18.

      • And now we find that this list has been recorded again (affirming David’s rule), now only with a few adjustments.

      • Here is a list (the slide) to see the changes in David’s official list.

    • Notice, Joab is now over Israel’s entire army.

      • However, I want us to notice an addition to this list.

      • Adoram was named over the forced labor.

    • This is important to note as I mentioned earlier in our time together regarding siege battles.

      • It is possible that some individuals who had rebelled were captured as forced labor now for the kingdom.

    • So, what we find in the end is that although David’s position as King has been solidified once again, it has fallen under a “shadow of opposition by some”.

      • The position of the kingdom and where it stands under David’s leadership at this point has proven to be a bit weak and all this due to David’s choices over the course of his Kingship.

    • However, the beautiful news in all of this is that despite the mistakes and missteps that David has taken, God remains faithful to His promises regarding the reigning rule of David’s descendants.

      • That after David would be Solomon and even in Solomon’s reign would be a series of even greater failures and misleadings.

      • But all of this shows that there is a greater King who is yet to come.

    • No matter one’s pursuits of establishing good leaders into positions of leadership, human sin always finds its way in the door.

      • No matter how many governmental programs established, or efforts of peace are explored, there will never be peace apart from the Prince of peace.

    • That through this eternal descendant of David, Jesus Christ, there will be perfect rule and reign.

      • And with the Lord will be co-heirs who reign with Him in resurrected bodies and who will serve to the pleasure of the King.

      • That those who are in Christ, once we have passed out of this life, will no longer be in the presence of sin nor controlled by the power of it.

    • So, at this current point, although the kingdom has been met with much opposition, poor decision making, unwise choices and the like, yet it remains.

      • But that present reality points us to an even greater hope, that in the Coming Kingdom, that governmental rule will look nothing like what we have seen, or currently see in this world.

      • But Jesus, in His Second Coming, will rule with perfect power, peace, and justice as King of Kings.

    • Next week, we will see how David responds to the Judgement of God due to the sins of Saul in 2 Samuel 21.

      • Let’s Pray.